3: Unrefined or Refined?
oils contain oil-soluble 'minor ingredients', which come from
the oil seeds. Different seeds contain different kinds of 'minor
ingredients' found in edible oils include vitamin E, carotene,
phytosterols, lecithin, polyphenolic antioxidants, and many
non-toxic 'minor ingredients" are found in neem oil,
which is so bitter that it is used externally only.
ingredients' are present in many seeds. They make these seeds
poisonous. Poisonous seeds and their oils should not be used
ingredients' are removed from oils by processing called 'full
refining' to produce 'RBD' (Refined, Bleached, Deodorized)
or colorless, odorless, tasteless oils. RBD oil production
requires treatment with NaOH (sodium hydroxide), then H3PO4 (phosphoric
acid), then bleaching clays (which render oil rancid, imparting
remove the bad odor (deodorize), oils are heated up to 450�F
(230�C). Both toxic and beneficial 'minor ingredients' are
removed from oils during deodorization.11
ingredients' in unrefined EPO are good for health. They should
remain in the oil. That's why I use unrefined, expeller-pressed
EPO in Udo's Choice Oil Blend.
of EPO and BO
search for toxicity of EPO came up with the following statements: "EPO
appears to be safe for most people."12 "EPO
has a very low toxicity."13 "Unrefined
EPO contains no known toxins."14 "Unlikely
to threaten life or cause significant symptoms."15 "At
the time of writing, there were no well-known drug interactions
with Evening Primrose Oil."16
on the other hand, might contain traces of toxins always present
in the borage plant and its seeds.
protect against being eaten, borage plants make natural toxins
called pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs)17,18.
Amounts of these vary throughout the plant and its life cycle19,
and traces of PAs, found as 'minor ingredients' in borage seeds,
might end up in BO20,21. PAs protect borage19 by
being toxic for animals and humans20,21,22. These
toxic alkaloids accumulate in tissues over time, and can result
in liver, kidney, GI tract, and respiratory damage, cancer,
and other serious problems17,18,23,24,25,26.
measurements of PAs have remained elusive, for several reasons.
First, any substance present below the detection limit of the
test used cannot be measured. Second, few tests have been carried
out, and fewer have been published. Third, although every batch
of BO should be tested for PAs, manufacturers and distributors
do not usually do this.
are pyrrolizidines present in BO? No one knows. The presence
of undetectable quantities is likely. No one knows the cumulative
effects of long term use of BO.
there enough doubt here to not want to chance the use of BO?
Read the literature, and decide for yourself. EPO contains
no PAs or other toxins.