1: Abbreviations used
in this article:
acid, the omega-6 essential fatty acid, from which the body
makes several derivatives, including GLA, DGLA, and AA (parent
of series 2 eicosanoid hormones and brain omega-6).
acid, the omega-3 essential fatty acid, from which the body
makes several derivatives, including SDA, EPA (parent of
series 3 eicosanoid hormones), and DHA (brain omega-3).
acid, a derivative of LA, the omega-6 essential fatty acid.
acid, the second derivatives of LA, from which series
1 eicosanoid ('prostaglandin') hormones (including PGE1)
also called triacylglycerol, the main form in which all fats
and oils are found in nature; a fatty acid is attached (esterified)
to each of glycerol's three carbon atoms.
oil, which contains about 35% LA, and between 18 and
24% GLA. BO also contains monounsaturates, saturates, and
Primrose Oil, which contains about 72% LA, and between
9 and 12% GLA, and beneficial 'minor' ingredients including
antioxidants and phytosterols. EPO also contains a small
amount of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids.
alkaloids, which are found in borage plant and (small
amounts) in borage seed, and traces may be present in borage
oil; some (unsaturated) PAs can be seriously toxic to liver
and respiratory system, and may be mutagenic, carcinogenic,
and teratogenic (cause birth defects).
unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are the toxic
refined, bleached, deodorized, shorthand for oils that
are colorless, odorless, and tasteless because they have
been treated with NaOH (base), H3PO4 (acid),
bleaching clays, and overheating (deodorization). All this
is done to extend shelf life, but at the expense of health
benefits. Beneficial 'minor ingredients' are removed from
oils, and some of the EFA and TG molecules are changed into
toxic forms by this treatment.
microgram, millionth of a gram; also written as mcg.
One gram is one 1,000th of a kilogram or one 454th of
a pound. A ug is very, very small.