Udo Erasmus, pioneer of essential fatty acids, EFA's, omega-3, omega fats, Udo's Choice, Udo's Oil, cold-pressed flax-seed oil, trans-fats, Trans Fatty acids

  Why I use Evening Primrose Oil, Not Borage Oil In Udo's Choice Oil Blend
 •  Summary Article   •  Expanded Version
 •  Full Length 6-part Document with Scientific References: Index, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6


PART 1: Abbreviations used in this article:

LA: linoleic acid, the omega-6 essential fatty acid, from which the body makes several derivatives, including GLA, DGLA, and AA (parent of series 2 eicosanoid hormones and brain omega-6).

LNA: alpha-linolenic acid, the omega-3 essential fatty acid, from which the body makes several derivatives, including SDA, EPA (parent of series 3 eicosanoid hormones), and DHA (brain omega-3).

GLA: gamma-linolenic acid, a derivative of LA, the omega-6 essential fatty acid.

DGLA: dihomogamma-linolenic acid, the second derivatives of LA, from which series 1 eicosanoid ('prostaglandin') hormones (including PGE1) are made.

TG: triglyceride, also called triacylglycerol, the main form in which all fats and oils are found in nature; a fatty acid is attached (esterified) to each of glycerol's three carbon atoms.

BO: borage oil, which contains about 35% LA, and between 18 and 24% GLA. BO also contains monounsaturates, saturates, and erucic acid.

EPO: Evening Primrose Oil, which contains about 72% LA, and between 9 and 12% GLA, and beneficial 'minor' ingredients including antioxidants and phytosterols. EPO also contains a small amount of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids.

PAs: pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are found in borage plant and (small amounts) in borage seed, and traces may be present in borage oil; some (unsaturated) PAs can be seriously toxic to liver and respiratory system, and may be mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic (cause birth defects).

UPAs: unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are the toxic ones.

RBD: refined, bleached, deodorized, shorthand for oils that are colorless, odorless, and tasteless because they have been treated with NaOH (base), H3PO4 (acid), bleaching clays, and overheating (deodorization). All this is done to extend shelf life, but at the expense of health benefits. Beneficial 'minor ingredients' are removed from oils, and some of the EFA and TG molecules are changed into toxic forms by this treatment.

ug: microgram, millionth of a gram; also written as mcg. One gram is one 1,000th of a kilogram or one 454th of a pound. A ug is very, very small.

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